Society Composter Demonstration

After Madhuban trial machine has shifted to Utsav Residency, Wagholi, Pune. There I gave the demo and I took a trial for 40 kg of kitchen waste.

Set -up has installed in this society

After 7 days composting looks like this:-

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They liked the demo and asked for a quotation. The quotation has mailed.

 

After giving the demo to Utsav society, the machine has shifted to Woodland Apartments, Kothrud, Pune.

Where I gave the demo to them two times. The first-time demo was for 35 kg of kitchen waste. And they said to come for the next demo after 7 days where they can see a result of the first demo.

First Demo Video:-

At the second time, the result of the first demo was so good. The second-time demo given for 80 kg of kitchen waste. This all settled in crates.

The result was as expected in 7 days was so great.

The demo video at Woodland Apartment, Kothrud, Pune:-

They said they will discuss in Society meeting and will let us know. I have mailed them a quotation. But they said the demo is very good but the budget has not sanctioned in this meeting.

 

After this demonstration machine has shifted to DIY Lab- Vigyan Ashram, Kothrud, Pune. For their canteen waste demonstration.

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I have exhibited composting technologies in Vasumitra Organic Fair Exhibition. Presented our home composting unit in this exhibition. Lots of people has shown interest to buy this unit.

 

Also given a composting demonstration in home composting unit at Jay Ganesh Complex, Balwadi to my friend Mr. Utkarsh Salunkhe for their 12 flats apartment.

They asked for only 5 flats model. I have mailed them a quotation for both 12 flats and 5 flats also.

 

Video of demonstration:-

We have presented our composting technologies in Dassault Systemes at Hinjewadi, Pune.

Where we have exhibited our society composter’s poster and small home composting unit.

 

We have also exhibited Vigyan Ashram’s technologies in Techfest 2019 event of ARMIET college, Shahapur, Thane. We have presented our some projects like Aquaponics mini model, Micro Grain Unit, Nachni Roaster, Composter. Also, we have represented the DIC posters and Fabvillage concept of Vigyan Ashram.

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Brown Matter Composting on Waste Decomposer

National Centre of Organic Farming (NCOF) has developed a waste decomposer culture which is used for quick composting from organic waste, soil health improvement and as a plant protection agent. It is a consortium of microorganism extracted from desi cow dung.

The waste decomposer is sold in a bottle of 30 gms costing Rs. 20/- per bottle directly through NCOF and Regional Organic Farming Centres (RCOF) to farmers. The waste decomposer is also validated by ICAR. According to them, single bottle decomposes bio-waste of more than 10000 metric tons just in 30 days.

How to prepare waste decomposer solution from the starter culture?

  1. Take 2 kg jaggery and mixed it in a plastic drum containing 200 liters water.
  2. Now take 1 bottle of waste decomposer and pour all its contents in a plastic drum containing jaggery solution. Avoid direct contact of contents with hands.
  3. Mix it properly with a wooden stick for uniform distribution of waste decomposer in a drum.
  4. Cover the drum with a paper or cardboard and stir it every day once or twice.
  5. After 5 days the solution of drum turns creamy.

The waste decomposer solution could be prepared again and again from the above-formed solution. For this, 20 liters of waste decomposer solution is added to a drum with 2 kg of jaggery and 20-liter water is added. We can prepare continuously this solution from this waste decomposer for a lifetime.

The procedure they said for the composting method as follows:-

  1. Spread 1 ton of compost as the layer on a plastic sheet placed under shade
  2. Sprinkle 20 liter of the above-prepared solution over the compost layer
  3. Spread one more layer of compost above the existing layer
  4. Sprinkle 20 liter of the solution over the compost layer
  5. Use the solution for 10 compost layers
  6. Maintain 60% moisture during the entire period of composting
  7. Turn over the compost at 7-day interval The compost is ready to use after 30 days.

But we have already BARC culture that we are using for kitchen waste composting and working very well. But we have the problem for brown matter composting. As our VA friend Mr. Pravin Patil said that this culture is also decomposing brown matter. That’s why we decided to conduct this experiment for brown matter composting.

The above-said procedure we did and prepared the solution for 200 liters:-

We have prepared for this solution as mixed 2 kg jaggery with 200 liters with proper stirring. After that, we added this Waste Decomposer Culture bottle in this jaggery solutions.

 

After preparing the solution we have covered drum with a bedsheet

 

This solution stirred daily twice up to 7 days.

 

After 7 days solution looks like creamy, it means culture is ready to spread.

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In these 7 days, I have collected various brown matter within a village with help of DBRT students. I have collected brown matter like bangya, mug kad, wal kad, dried leaves, dried shredded leaves, and a mixture of all of them.

After that, I have framed rectangular bed with a height of each brown matter.

 

As process mentioned I have started to spread prepared culture on this brown matter bed on every Friday, 19 October.

Along with this, I have maintained 60% moisture daily by spreading water on this bed with help of one DBRT student Mahesh Mali, who has assigned this project of Agriculture section.

 

After every 7 days, we have mixed it like an upside down and spread this culture. This procedure has continued up to 42 days. Means we have spread culture on this bed 6 times in 42 days up to got some result.

The overall data of 42 days are given below:-

Product

Total Weight

Total Spread Culture on Date

19/10/2018 26/10/2018 02/11/2018 9/11/2018 16/11/2018 23/11/2018

Bangya

50 kg 25 liter 22 liter 23 liter 22 liter 22 liter 22 liter

WalKad

32.4 kg 16 liter 15 liter 15 liter 16 liter 15 liter 16 liter

Mug Kad

35 kg 17.5 liter 15 liter 18 liter 15 liter 18 liter 16 liter

Dried Leaves

24 kg 12 liter 10 liter 12 liter 12 liter 11 liter 12 liter

Shredded Dried Leaves

14.94 kg 3 liter 7 liter 6 liter 6 liter 6 liter 5 liter

Mixture of all above

16.29 kg 8 liter 7 liter 8 liter 7 liter 7 liter 7 liter

After 50 days the result and observation look like this:-

50% of brown matter has decomposed very well. Because of the water shortage problem we were not able to maintain 60% moisture in some days. That’s why some part was not decomposed. We observed one more thing that shredded leaves have decomposed very well. So next we need to shred all brown matter as small as in particle.

 

Still, the made compost from brown matter is very good and this compost we can use as a culture for brown matter composting,” the comment from Dr. Sharad Kale, who is BARC scientist and worked on compost culture.

 

 

Maker Mela Exhibition

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Maker Mela is the premier event for grassroots innovations in India. It is the celebration of arts, crafts, engineering, science, the Do-It-Yourself (DIY) mindset, and the Maker Movement. It’s a platform for like-minded folks who bring to life a diverse range of raw, unique and unconventional ideas.

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I have represented Vigyan Ashram’s various technology in this exhibition. Mainly my focus was on Waste Management thing. I have presented Composter to various people who visited our stall. Along with that represented Aquaponics business model, Grey water treatment model, agriculture waste composting, solar evaporative cooking, Drying technologies, dome dryer, etc.

DBRT students Akhil Mitra and Shivaji or DIC intern Niranjan Kamble also helped to represent vigyan Ashram’s different technologies. We had total 5 stalls there which includes following technologies of VA:-

1] Composter

2] Ragi Roaster

3] Braille Printer

4] Plywood Engraver

5] Fabric academy assignments

 

 

 

Nashik IV Report

A. Gargoti Museum, Sinner, Nashik.

Nashik Visit held on 7th -8th December. Total 10 DIC students, 2 Staff members Mr. Siddhesh Sakore, Miss. KomalRaut and DIC Head Dr. Arun Dixit. We started at 5:15am from Vigyan Ashram, Pabalfirstly reached GargotiMuseaum, Sinner around 9 am. GargotiMineral Museums is a chain of Minerals Museums in India. Superb Minerals India Pvt. Ltd. which was established as an export firm in 1994 by its sibling Promoters Mr.K.C.Pandey&R.C.Pandey.Catering to the demand of Indian Zeolite Minerals & Crystals around the world, Superb Minerals since last 15 years emerged as the leading dealer of Indian Zeolite Minerals & Crystals around the world.Participating& attending International Shows, Exhibition & Conventions Mr.K.C.Pandey CMD realized the need of Museums & Galleries in India to showcase & educate its citizens about The Natural Wealth of India such as Natural Minerals, Crystals, Metals, Stones etc. With sheer determination & motivation Mr.K.C.Pandey worked against the odds to set up India’s 1st Gem & Mineral Museum in India which led to the birth of Gargoti The Mineral Museum, Nasik. Gargoti, The Mineral Museum (Nasik, Maharashtra) was inaugurated by the blessed hands of Hon.Late.Shri.BalasahebThackreyji in 2001. Gargoti Museum displays the personal collection of Connoisseur Mr.K.C.Pandey which the result of his consistency since past 40 years.

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The Gargoti Museum majorly consists of :

  1. Natural Indian Zeolite Minerals & Crystals

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2. Natural Gems Stones

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3. Natural Precious/Semi-Precious Stones

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4. Naturals Precious/Semi-Precious Metals

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5. Fossils

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6. Stone Handicrafts (Statues)

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  • Gargoti Museum is India’s one & only Gem & Mineral Museum
  • It is the world’s biggest “Private” Gem & Mineral Museum
  • Gargoti Museum houses the largest & the finest collection of Indian Zeolite Minerals & Crystals in the world.

We spent around one and half hour in Gargoti Museum got lot of knowledge about minerals and precious stones.

B. Sahyadri Farm, Mohadi, Nashik


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We reached at 12:30pm to Sahyadri Farm. Sahyadri Farm is India’s leading farmers producer company 8000+ Marginal Farmers. They process around 2 metric tonnes grapes per day. Sahyadri Farm Grows vegetables and fruits on less than 1 hector land through community farming. Firstly we watch sorting fruits and vegetables’ chamber, after words ripening chamber for banana and mango using ethylene gas with temperature 16-200C, 18-220C respectively. Ripening the fruits require 4-5 days after that frozen at -180C in frozen chamber. In packaging section every item having independent QR code, it helps to track a producer farmer using cropping software.

For product they have their own domestic market which includes all vegetables and fruits from local farmers around Nashik. In food processing unit they have pulp making unit for fruits like pomegranate, mango, guava and tomato. They having good export network to UK. Recently they are started 3 outlets in Mumbai, Nashik and Pune. Sahyadri farm products are Certified by ISO, WHO, USFD, KISSAN. They provides jobs to 300+ staff members and 3000+ labour.

We have seen ETP (Enfluent treatment Plant) having capacity 350 kL/day.

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Water coming from all processing units inlet COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand ) was 3000, to reduce high COD used parabolic separator, USB tank and Sedimentation Tank . For treatment they use chlorination, soda+ ash and alum process. After treatment expected COD 250 but they got 1000 COD. Their ETP systems are not working properly.

They Having corrougated sheets water tank haviing 5 lakh litter capacity. The design methodology is same as our tank design.

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After tour of Sahyadri farm we had interacted with Mr. Vilas Shinde, Founder- Sahyadri farm and Mr. Pritesh Kare PRO (Public Relationship Officer). We introduce them Vigyan Ashram and They enthusiastic to visit Vigyan Ashram.

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C. Vani saptsrungi:

We saw rope-way train having 50 seats capacity. The mechanical construction is inspiring to travel hilly areas.

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D. Nashik Municipal corporation solid waste management project visit.

Nashik, a city located in the northwest of Maharashtra State in India, is 180 km away from Mumbai and 202 km from Pune. Nashik is the administrative headquarters of Nashik District and Nashik Division. Nashik had a population of 1.9 million with a total area of 259 km² which makes it the fourth largest urban area in Maharashtra in terms of population. Nashik is the third most industrialized city in Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune. It generates 500 TPD municipal solid wastes.

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The processing plant includes the following:

  1. Pre sorting
  2. Aerobic Composting Unit
  3. Inert processing unit
  4. Leachate treatment plant
  5. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) Plant
  6. Animal Carcass Incinerator
  7. Sanitary Landfill
  8. Plastic to fuel
  9. Biogas generation plant from Food waste
  1. Pre-sorting Unit: It is electromechanical segregation system for incoming non segregated MSW with the capacity of 500 TPD and it comprises of two lines with all necessary requirements and materials. Loading into tunnels and rotary screen for size separation. Fraction of waste below 20 mm are inert/reject and transferred to scientific landfill, Fraction uto 20 mm- 100 mm goes into compost section and above 100 mm fraction are goes into RDF section. After mechanical segregation compostable material will go to windrow composting, material with calorific value goes to RDF plant and inert will be further processed at Inert Processing plant.

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2. Aerobic Composting Unit: Composting is done through windrow composting method and sheds have been constructed for windrows. Today out of total MSW 3 to 5 % is converted into compost. The compost has already become popular among-st the farmers within 100 km radius of Nashik. By maintaining the price line of Rs.2000/MT Ex-factory level for loose form and Rs. 2450/- for packed form with necessary backup support, entire quantity of compost will be saleable in this belt. Once segregation at source will be practiced then the quantity of generation of compost will increase up to 10 to 15 % of total MSW.

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3. Inert processing unit: inert processing unit, with capacity of 50 TPD, comprises of mechanical sieve and air density separator. Main purpose of inert processing plant is to recover the construction material from the waste and to recycle it by selling or utilizing it for in house construction activities. This is mainly to minimize landfill burden on O&M cost and also saving of land.

4. Leachate treatment plant: Leachate treatment plant with capacity of 0.4mld leachate or 10 TPD organic wastes has been installed for treatment of leachate coming out from the windrows, the solid waste dumps and sanitary landfill site. Proper arrangement for collection and transportation of leachate has been made. As leachate is primarily generated in monsoon season and during other period, same plant is utilized for bio gas generation from organic waste. 40 KW power is generated through the plant and utilized for operation of pumps at MSWM facility.

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5. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) Plant: The high calorific energy containing materials present in MSW are to be handled separately from the stage of receiving at the tipping floor onwards. RDF plant with capacity of 150 TPD is installed for generation of fuel pellets from high calorific value materials. Woody materials, paper products, textiles, jute etc forms the main constituents of RDF which is a valuable source of alternate energy. The technology for RDF primarily focuses on refinement of MSW through material re-combinations, segregation, drying, size reduction, blending and homogenization. This material is further refined for separation of sand, dust, metals, glass etc before grinding or shredding. The shredded material is obtained as fluff (<2 cm size) which is further processed into pellets, briquettes or bailing. NMC is exploring the possibilities for marketing of fuel pellets and nearby industries have shown their interest for fuel pellets.

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6. Animal Carcass Incinerator: Dead animal carcass incinerator with the capacity of 250Kg per hour is installed for the incineration of dead animals such as dogs, cattle’s etc.

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7. Sanitary Landfill: The solid waste that is not suitable for any processing is transported to the sanitary landfill site. For this purpose, a sanitary landfill in an area of 2 hector has been developed. All the necessary aspects of scientific land filling were considered during creation of sanitary landfill. Proper arrangement for leachate is also provided and this is connected to the leachate treatment plant for further processing.

 

 8. Plastic to fuel:

Plastic to fuel plant with capacity of 4 TPD plastic wastes has been installed for processing waste plastic coming out from the society. This plant is working on batch Pyrolysis technology. Thermally decomposition of plastic at elevated temperature in inert atmosphere gives solid, liquid and Gaseous product. In which process gives oil content is 50-55%, hydro carbon gas is 40% and 10% of char. Oil and char are sell in market and gases are used in running equipment for power generation and storage into balloons. The plant is working 8-10 hours per day.

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9. Biogas generation plant from Food waste:

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Organic waste and septage is treated separately. The screened organic waste is fed to a crusher and then mixed with septage to form slurry. The slurry is continuously agitated and forwarded to the digester. The co-fermentation process takes place in the bio-digester. After purification and reduction of moisture the gas is sent to a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) unit.

Daily 10 to 15 tons of food and vegetable waste from approximately 500 restaurants and 10 to 20 tons of septage from 400 community toilets is collected by trucks and delivered to the plant. Approx. 2,500m3 biogas and subsequently 3,300 kWh of electricity is produced per day. The generated power is fed into the power grid. The nutrient-rich effluent from the earlier treated septage can be used as moisturizing agent in the composting process, thus closing the loop of recycling and reusing waste.

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Converting scientific landfill into gardening:

Project scope from visit:

  1. Tomato peel problem
  2. ETP (Effluent treatment plant)
  3. Extraction of Pectin from citrus fruits

 

Thank you Dr. Yogesh Kulkerni, Mr. Ranjeet Shanbag and Dr. Arun Dixit to give us permission such a nice visit. Your suggested places are very good and informative which are enrich our knowledge. We enjoyed a lot.

Bhor Municipal Visit

Date:- 26/11/2018

Bhor Muncipal Council Visit Report

1] Compost Pit:-

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This was the compost pit we saw on dumping ground. The issues for this pit is: – 1] No holes for aeration.

2] Too much home flies.

3] Smell.

The solution we suggested:-

1] Pipe with holes structure in all over the pit.

2] Make big holes on the wall of a pit for aeration.

3] Mixing needs properly.

4] Put BSF in a pit for the solution on the home fly.

2] Winthrop:-

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There were 2 Winthrops of size 30Ft* 8Ft* at height 2.5 feet. Waste was approx. 2.5-3 ton of kg per Winthrop. The problem in Winthrop was:-

1] It dries very fast.

2] Too big size.

3] Mixing was not properly done.

4] Mixing of culture is also not properly done.

The solution we suggested:-

1] First mix culture in water and then spread it on. (Do not mix directly without water.)

2] Make the smaller size of Winthrop- 30 Ft *3 Ft* at the height at max as possible up to 8 feet.

3] Put all the wet waste and brown matter in the shredder and then mix it in Winthrop’s.

4] Put synthetic cloth from dry waste on Winthrop and spread water on it daily for maintaining moisture.

3] Kitchen Waste:-

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Bhor Municipal Council collects 400-500 kg of kitchen waste daily. Right now they are dumping in land and putting soil on it.

The kitchen waste has very big problems:-

1] It does not decompose easily.

2] It smells very badly also.

3] Dog fighting is also a problem in this landfilling.

So we have suggested the following solutions to them:-

1] BSF can grow easily on that.

2] Warahpalan is also a good option.

3] Mangoor fish can grow easily. This solution will work as we are confident about this. We suggested them for a fish tank which one we will use for aquaponics. They also can get income from fish. We can grow fish but we need to do some study on this.

4. New Compost Pit Construction:-

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They want to make more compost pit for wet waste daily processing. We suggested them that do not make more compost pit in cement construction.

If you want to make then get the design of pit from us. And they can use pits made from HDPE sheet with our suggested design of size 12 Ft*3 FT* with 2 Feet height.

5] Cloth waste:-

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We suggested that use this cloth to maintain moisture content from Winthrop’s. It can be recycled and reused in other ways.

6] Belling Machine:-

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They are using this type of belling machine to pack plastic waste in big kg of bunches. So we suggested to them that make only 15 kg- 20 Kg size of the bunch. So it will easy to handle for dry waste segregator.

7] Lawn Garden:-

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They are making a garden from waste bottles and compost. They have problems with their plant that it does not grow on compost. The plant is withering in some days if they are watering it daily also.

We suggested use Trichoderma powder to mix with compost for gardening. This powder can also use for seed treatment. It will prevent the plant from disease.

8] Other Dry Waste:-

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For the solution of other dry waste, we suggested them for pyrolysis unit which can make fuels from this types of waste.

9] Society’s Compost Pit Visit:-

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In Bhor, we have visited one society which has 274 flats. They are decomposing their wet waste in compost pit made from HDPE sheets.

We suggested them that use bio-drum for mixing culture and after that put it into compost pit. Make this compost pit in the rack system.

 

 

Upcoming actions for implementations:-

1] Get BARC culture for making compost.

2] Conduct one experiment for multiplication of BARC culture with Winthrop system.

3] Get BSF and put it in the compost pit.

4] Install pipe with holes structure in the compost pit.

5] Make fish tank for kitchen waste.

 

Maker Fair Hyderabad

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We were invited to represent our technologies in Maker Fair Hyderabad by Mr. Pavan Kumar. Pavan Kumar is founder and CEO of workbench projects in Bangalore. Now he is working with T-Works in Hyderabad with Telangana government. Our alumni Akshay Goharkar is helped us in Hyderabad.  One of the biggest help is done by Mr. Vineel Reddy who is the founder of Collab House and also work with T- Works.

Me and Jaydeep(DIC) attended the Maker Fair Exhibition in Hyderabad on 9 November to 11 November 2018. We set all the posters of Vigyan Ashram’s technologies on the wall and we were very excited to talk with people and told that how Vigyan Ashram is work. In this exhibition, I learned a lot of things. I enjoyed the events and explained all the technologies of Vigyan Ashram to the people and guest visited our stall. I was super excited and people were getting interested in various technologies of the Vigyan Ashram.

 

The teaser video of Maker fair Hyderabad:-

I gain my confidence to talk with people in English. I represented Vigyan Ashram’s various training program like IBT(Information to Basic Technology), DBRT(Diploma in Basic Rural Technology), DIC(Design Innovation Centre), FabAcademy.

I was prepared the one speech to give information about ‘what Vigyan Ashram does?’. The speech is:-

Hello, My name is Siddhesh and I am working with Vigyan Ashram. Vigyan Ashram is NGO working on Rural Development and Social problems.

      We are conducting 3-4 types of courses like Fablab, DIC, DBRT, IBT, Diy Lab. Vigyan Ashram Fablab is the first Fablab in the world. Now it’s 2500 and above fab labs all over the world. In this Fablab you can make almost anything and learn digital fabrication tools and etc. In Fablab, we can get our idea into a product.
          We have a Design Innovation Center for UG and PG students. Where students come up with their own ideas and projects and they develop their own product. If they don’t have any ideas and they want to start their business so we have lots of ideas. We are giving support of materials, tools, mentorship, guidance and skill development. We help them to start their own enterprise. Along with this, we have lots of research projects going on. We have 10-acre campus including R&D center, Digital Fabrication Lab, Workshop, Computer Design Lab, Soil Testing Lab, Microbiology Lab, Food lab. We are working on Solar technology, Drying technology, Waste management, Agriculture, and IOT things. Now, this is all our project made by our students and entrepreneurs. If you find any interesting things so I can elaborate in details.

After this speech the telling some interesting projects like Aquaponics, Waste management. I introduced them all the things of their interesting projects.

Among this, I have promoted Fab Academy course and DIC course for various students. Some student will join us in upcoming batches.

One of the interesting guests is visited Vigyan Ashram’s stall is Mr. Sonam Wangchuk. I explained all the technologies of Vigyan Ashram. He was interested in our Dome Dryer technology. I had a very good interaction with him. I also explained our Aquaponics business model for farmers to him.

 

 

My video on the real-life problem-solving concept has been published by Workbench Projects:-

https://www.facebook.com/627241924010726/posts/1981899828544922/

The exhibitions experience was so great for me. I have connected too many new peoples.  How Maker’s network is changing I saw in this Exhibition.

Pilot dryer for making raisins from grapes [Grape Dryer]

This project is solving problems of the farmers who are making raisins from grapes. This is the research project of student Ameya Kulkarni who is doing a Ph.D. under the guidance of Dr. J. B. Joshi.  Dr. J. B. Joshi and Vigyan Ashram have decided to work on the grape dryer. Drying grape has a problem with high moisture and sugar content, fresh grapes respire and transpire actively after harvest, which contributes to the quality loss. The sun drying method has several disadvantages including the possibility of environmental contamination due to dust and insect infections, physical microbial deterioration caused by rain, and color deterioration due to intense solar radiation. Drying can process grapes into raisins for longer shelf-life as well as dehydrated grapes, which can be used for wines or juice production. In this project, I made grape dryer’s box design and decided fabrication in FRP (Fiber Reinforcement Plastic) material because of high insulation. I have made this box and tray with a tight lid. In this project, the first parts of design and fabrication were done by me. Remaining work of trial and simulation is going on by Ameya Kulkarni. In this project, I have learned problems of the farmer while making raisins, how to maintain quality, some part of design and simulation, FRP fabrication, FRP’s insulation property.

Literature Review:-

Grapes are one of the most popular and palatable fruits in the world. The preservation of grapes by drying is a major industry in many parts of the world where grapes are grown. Drying practices vary with geographical locality and with a variety of grapes. Drying grapes, either by open sun drying, shade drying or mechanical drying, produces raisins. Air-drying of solar energy has been demonstrated to be cost-effective and could be an effective alternative to traditional and mechanical drying systems, especially in locations with good sunshine during the harvest season. The traditional air-drying shelter of grapes has been used for thousands of years in Asia and other places around the world. The drying of grapes under sheds is common practice followed in major raisin making sites of India like Sangli, Solapur and Nashik districts of Maharashtra and Bijapur district of Karnataka.

The quality of the dried products implies that several desirable changes (physical, chemical, and biochemical) must occur during the drying process. These changes are influenced by drying conditions and physio-chemical characteristics of the targeted material. Some specific characteristics of grapes (i.e., size of the berries, sugar content, and the presence of an outer waxy cuticle) play a significant role both in the drying process itself and in post-drying operations such as washing, cleaning, and finish-drying. Prevailing temperature, wind velocity, exposure of grapes to sunlight, humidity are major environmental factors which affect the quality of dried grape. Other than these factors the berry size also affect water loss rate during the drying process. The drying rate affected by kind of grapes also. The smaller berries lost water more rapidly than larger berries because of the greater relative area of skin to flesh. Water loss was not greatly affected by sugar content; however. 20 Brix berries tended to lose water more rapidly than higher maturity berries. Final water loss was greater in 20 Brix grapes because they had less soluble solids. Berry characteristics of each cultivar also affect the drying rate independently.

Increasing efforts have been made on modifying and developing traditional grape drying procedures. Fruit quality parameters such as color, texture, and microbial stability can be considerably changed during the storage period, depending on storage conditions and the physiochemical specifications of grapes (i.e., moisture content, water activity (aw), skin damage, and individuality of berries). These changes may have adverse effects on processing operations reducing the shelf life of processed raisins.

Pretreatments of grape bunches

Application of an oil emulsion or a dilute alkaline solution is a common practice to accelerate the drying process by reducing the resistance to moisture transfer of the surface skin of grapes, and by improving the internal moisture diffusion coefficient. Each component of the drying emulsion may interact with the berry skin, the cuticle, and underlying layers. Apart from chemical components (either “alkaline solutions with or without dipping oils” or “compounds such as ethyl oleate with or without alkaline solutions”), the pre-treatment will cause an increase in the drying rate particularly at the early stage of the drying process. The composition, concentration, pH, and temperature of the chemicals and the pre-treating time are effective factors in microstructural changes of the skin layers. Dipping of grape bunches in a solution of 15 ml ethyl oleate and 25 g potassium carbonate/l for 2- 4 minutes is common practice. Some commercial grape drying oils are available in the market and extensively in use. The dipping durations significantly affected the moisture content, color intensity other quality attributes.

Drying Methods:-

Drying of grapes varies in different parts of the world, depending on the cultivation conditions. There are three main methods that are used in raisin production; sun drying, shade drying, and mechanical drying. The sun drying method has several disadvantages including, the possibility of environmental contamination due to dust and insect infections, physical microbial deterioration caused by rain, and color deterioration due to intense solar radiation. Moreover, the removal of contaminants (e.g., small stones, soil, leaves, dust, etc.) collected for the period of raisin gathering is tedious during the raisin cleaning process. Hence, using this method, raisins of low quality are produced due to uncontrolled drying conditions and environment. In recent years, new methods of indirect solar drying have been developed.

These three methods are known as traditional or conventional techniques in grape drying. More recently, the industrial application of microwave heating for the preparation of dried grapes has been reported. The microwave vacuum dryer system was originally introduced for California seedless grapes where the so-called puffy dried grapes are produced. But this system is dependent on electric energy. Considering the situation and available resources, the method adopted by raisin processors of Maharashtra and Karnataka is much suitable. The grape drying sheds are not depended on the electricity and within 10-12 days one lot of grapes converted into raisins.

Post-drying (Processing) of Dried Grapes:-

Following production of dried grapes, either by sun drying or other drying techniques, they must be delivered to an appropriate processing unit. The post-drying operations may vary depending on the drying method. The operating conditions may affect the physical and hygienic characteristics of the dried product. The cleaning involves individualizing the dried fruit, removal of stems and foreign materials, and removal of off-grade raisins. Since water is used to eliminate foreign materials such as dust and sandy soil, through multiple washing, this may lead to further re-hydration. The rehydration, leakage of some of the dissolved sugars of the dried fruit into the washing water, and extension of micro-cracks and skin-wounds are the main phenomena taking place during the post-drying practices. There is a lack of research and development on rehydration phenomenon during the washing step. Because of an increase in the moisture content of the dried product during the washing, especially when the grapes have been partially dried or washed off before packaging, one additional step, finish-drying, is needed in order to control the amount of the moisture content. The efficiency and quality of the post-drying operations are significantly influenced by biomechanical and physical properties of the dried grapes.

Dried Grape Quality:-

The quality of dried grapes as a semi-processed product and raisin (the final product) are evaluated in terms of the appearance, texture, free-flow (having nonsticky surface), cleanliness (for dried grapes that easily could be processed with minimum damage), flavor, and nutritional value. Apart from varieties and preharvest conditions, the quality of dried grapes/raisins largely depends on operating, pretreatment, drying, processing, and storage conditions. The quality of different varieties of grapes after drying in similar operating conditions had not been identified due to differences in texture and composition. Fruit maturity has a direct influence on the appearance, texture, flavor and food value so that raisins produced from low-maturity fruit are skinny, coarse-wrinkled, hard, light in weight, and tend toward a lighter, more reddish color. The texture of the fruit is influenced by pre-harvest factors such as environmental, cultural, physiological, and genetic factors. Both color and texture greatly influence the marketability of the product.

The color of the final product could be influenced by the state of the fresh fruit. Sunlight exposure affects the grape composition, especially the phenolic compounds in the skin, which play a significant role in the browning of grapes on drying. Several times color parameters chosen as an index to evaluate the quality of dried grapes. It is well known that chemical pretreatment of grapes leads to the production of light-colored dried grapes.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and its derivatives have long been used in foods as general food preservatives. They act as antioxidant, bleaching and reducing agents, and as such inhibit non-enzymatic browning, enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and control microorganisms. The buffering process is generally performed by gas fumigation or by immersion in solutions of SO2 generating compounds.

Storage of raisins

Raisins are very hygroscopic. Contact to moisture may result in mold, rot, and fermentation and if a fermentation process is initiated, it may eventually affect the entire lot. Under appropriate temperature and humidity conditions, there is a risk of infestation by maggots, mites, cockroaches, moths, beetles, rats, mice and ants. Mite infestation may be determined by examination with a magnifying glass: mites may be distinguished from crystallized glucose because they are whitish, slow-moving dots. At temperatures > 25°C and on exposure to mechanical pressure, there is a risk of candying, agglomeration, syrup formation and fermentation. Heat generally causes the risk of discoloration and hardening and the product should thus be stored away from heat sources. At temperatures < 10°C, mite growth is usually inhibited.

Storage of raisins at ambient conditions also deteriorates the quality in terms of color, mouthfeel, aroma, etc. To maintain the quality of raisins and increasing shelf life, storage at low temperature is always advised. During the storage period, the product turns sticky and hard due to exudates syrup and moisture loss. To overcome this problem the application of edible coating suggests being of proper assistance. This coating can affect respiration and moisture loss. The performance of pectin film was found better than gum and starch coatings. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that the color and texture of Thompson Seedless variety coated with pectin were the best, while in the term of flavor, samples covered with gum proved to be the best and a microbial count was also decreased. Raisin storage in darkness is found to maintain its quality. In view of the above, the final packing of produce is done in 400 gauge LDPE film bags and stored in corrugated boxes of 5 to 15 kg capacity at low temperature (4°C) to withstand the mechanical, climatic, biotic and chemical stresses to which raisins may be exposed during transport, storage and cargo handling and preserve the original raisin color and prevent the attack of pests.

Thus there is a big potential of the raisin industry in India in terms of the marketing of this product in the domestic and international market for import substitution and better utilization. Besides, there is the possibility of diversification of the raisin industry by promoting the production of flavored and colored raisins and promoting raisins as neutraceuticals in public health care.

I have made the design of this box in SolidWorks as per discussion with Dr. J. B. Joshi and Ameya Kulkarni. We have decided to make this box in FRP because of better insulation.

Design:-

 

I have changed this dimension many times while seeing the functionality of it after discussion with Ameya Kulkarni. Finally, I have set the following dimensions and made this box in FRP at Starking Insulation, Lohgaon. I learned FRP fabrication and its chemical propositions in this workshop. So I can start FRP fabrication facility in Vigyan Ashram and made remaining fabrication at Vigyan Ashram.

Final Dimensions for 15 trays:-

This is the final box made in FRP:-

IMG_20181128_125919

I have made tray and lid fabrication in Vigyan Ashram with the help of DBRT student Dhananjay Kadam and my brother Akash Sakore.

I have tried to make this tray in FRP. I have screwed 3-4 trays while making this tray in FRP. I have trained Akash Sakore and Dhananjay Kadam in FRP fabrication. Finally, we have managed different propositions and made 15 trays in FRP.

From this onward, heating inlet and outlet assembly’s fabrication has completed Dhananjay Kadam as per order of Ameya Kulkarni.

Final assembly looks like this:-

IMG_20190329_160149

IMG_20190329_160127

After remaining electrical heating controlling part, the trial will be taken out. And the necessary changes will be done.